Secondary Catalogue

Series: Organic Chemistry


Carboxylic Acids

Carboxylic Acids

Carboxylic acids are carbon compounds containing polar carboxyl functional groups. Carboxylic acids form strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds and have high boiling points . The hydrogen bonding is also responsible for the high solubility of...Show More
E-Z System for Geometric Isomers

E-Z System for Geometric Isomers

In the E-Z system for geometric isomers, if two groups or atoms of higher priority are on the same side of the double bond, then they are called Z isomers, and when they are on the opposite sides of the double bond, then they are called E...Show More
Elimination Reactions

Elimination Reactions

An elimination reaction involves the removal of two groups or atoms from a saturated compound to form an unsaturated compound. Elimination reactions are important as a method for the preparation of alkenes. Some examples of elimination reactions...Show More
Nucleophilic Addition Reaction

Nucleophilic Addition Reaction

Nucleophilic addition reactions are an important class of reactions that allow the interconversion of carbon-oxygen double bondsC=O into a range of important functional groups, mainly aldehydes and ketones.
Nucleophilic Substution Reaction

Nucleophilic Substution Reaction

Nucleophilic substitution is a reaction in which an electron rich group, called nucleophile, substitutes an outgoing group called leaving group, which carries with it the bonding electron pair. Good leaving groups are weak bases.Alkyl halides...Show More
Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones

Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are compounds containing a carbonyl group. The carbonyl group, being polar, affects the physical properties of aldehydes and ketones. The boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are higher than those of alkanes, but lower...Show More
Radical Addition: Anti-Markonikov Rule

Radical Addition: Anti-Markonikov Rule

The anti-Markovnikov rule describes the regiochemistry where the substituent is bonded to a less substituted carbon, rather than the more substitued carbon. This process is quite unusual, as carboncations which are commonly formed during alkene,...Show More
Structural Isomerism

Structural Isomerism

Structural isomers are molecules having the same molecular formula but different structural formulae. Chain, positional, and functional group isomerisms are the three categories of structural isomerism. Structural isomers differ in physical...Show More
Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular Reactions

Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular Reactions

Substitution nucleophilic bimolecular or SN2 reactions occur in a single step. In this reaction, both bond - making and bond - breaking occur at the same time. It’s a second order or bimolecular reaction, in which the rate of the reaction...Show More
Substitution Reaction of Alkanes

Substitution Reaction of Alkanes

Substitution reaction, also known as replacement reaction, is a chemical reaction that involves the replacement of an atom or a group of atoms by another atom or group of atoms.